Tokoiti cemetery at Milton

Adapted from a University of Otago article. 
Milton is a moderately sized township south of Dunedin on State Highway 1 and one of the earliest pioneer centres. It also happens to be the stepping off point for travel to Central Otago, and historically for the goldfields discovered in the 1860s. It therefore had an impact on pioneering life far beyond mere agricultural scrabbling and quite early on developed light industry including clay and lime works.

Prior to 1859 all cemeteries in the British Empire and colonies were church based and usually close by an actual church. After 1859 the State took over responsibility for all cemeteries and in most cases new graveyards were established outside of the town centres. Milton bridges that transition and its first cemetery was inside the township. Subsequently a new one was established to the east and called Fairfax.

History has erased the evidence of the older cemetery and archaeology has been undertaken to find out more about the pioneer families of the day who while generous in their ship-board diaries seldom recorded their day-to-day lives.

The adapted article reproduced below describes a University project to expand our understanding of those early times...

Otago cemetery research reveals insights into lives of early settlers

In the first research of its kind in New Zealand, University of Otago researchers are gaining fresh insights into the quality of life and identity of Otago’s early European settlers and farmers through excavating and analysing skeletons from unmarked graves in St. John’s Burial Ground, in Tokoiti, Milton.

The project is being undertaken in partnership with a local community group called Tokomairiro Project 60 (TP60) and the Anglican Church. A public meeting to unveil the initial findings, and individual life histories of some of the people buried at the cemetery [was held] on 15th of August [2017] at 7pm at the Milton Coronation Hall. Professor Hallie Buckley, who is co-leading the research with Dr Peter Petchey and Professor Lisa Matisoo-Smith, says the team is intrigued by the findings to date. The names of some of the people who have been identified so far, and whom the Otago researchers are seeking further information on from living descendants, are:

   Lt Robert Rowley Thomson (formerly of Kilcooly, Tipperary, Ireland. Died September 1877)
   Flora Clementine Weber (nee MacKay and widow of Dr John Williams before marrying Gustavus Weber)
   Flora’s husband, Gustavus Adolphus Weber, (the researchers have found descendants of his brother)
   Henry Pim

Professor Buckley

The first three people were identified by the painting on their coffin plates during the excavation and Henry Pim’s inscribed headstone was found buried just under the ground surface. Henry’s grave was not excavated.

The TP60 group had located records of 68 burials in the St John’s Church of England Cemetery on the back road at Tokoiti.

Recent research has revealed that the first known burials were in 1857 and 1859 which predate the consecration of the site by Bishop Harper in 1860. Previously, the first known burial was thought to be in 1860 and the last in 1926.

The people are mostly first-generation settlers and their families with two thirds born overseas. Half of these were from the UK, mostly from England but some from Ireland, Scotland and Wales who moved to Otago after 1850. State-of-the-art archaeological and forensic analysis of the cemetery and those buried within is being undertaken by a multidisciplinary research team led by Dr Peter Petchey of the Department of Anthropology and Archaeology and Professors Buckley and Matisoo-Smith of Anatomy. Detailed mapping and geophysical surveying of the burial ground has been carried out, followed by careful archaeological excavation of selected areas.

The researchers found many previously unknown burials outside the presently-fenced area of the old cemetery. Sixteen graves were found in the area to the rear of the fence, confirming the common suspicion that the cemetery was larger than these bounds. Archaeological excavation of part of the cemetery took place in the latter part of last year.

The work was preceded by a blessing by the Anglican Bishop and a whakawatea conducted by Otakou runaka and closed by a blessing by the local vicar, who also performed a brief blessing for each burial as it was uncovered and prior to it being lifted. The research involves DNA, bone, hair and tooth analysis — including investigations into strontium isotopes that may help to pinpoint where in the UK the settlers came from. This biological information will be integrated with the historical research gathered by the TP60 group and death certificates to aid in identification of more people. Identified living descendants of the people known to have been buried there will be asked to provide a DNA sample to help determine which remains may be those of their ancestors. Professor Buckley’s departmental colleague Professor Matisoo-Smith is conducting the DNA analyses on the skeletons and their living descendants.

Most of the coffins were discovered to be covered with a black woollen fabric that was fixed with iron tacks, with an embossed decorative metal (possibly zinc) strip tacked on around the edges. These trim strips had deteriorated, but several patterns could be seen. Iron coffin plates were applied over the chests of most of the adult interments, and originally bore the name and age at death of each person. These plates were very rusty, but writing on four could be deciphered. “New Zealand was presented to settlers as a ‘Better Britain’ – a place where they could build more fulfilling and healthier lives. Through our research we are trying see whether this was a reality or not,” Professor Buckley says.

The researchers are comparing the detailed life histories the TP60 members have compiled with the new forensic evidence. The burials will be re-interred at the burial ground later this year, with appropriate markers for these previously unknown graves, once the weather becomes more favourable.